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Author Topic: Gun Facts  (Read 27640 times)

Offline bearpaw

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #60 on: February 18, 2013, 09:13:40 PM »
GUN OWNERS AND PUBLIC OPINION

Myth: Gun owners are a tiny minority

Fact: The Federal government estimated that there were over 65 million gun owners in the U.S. and more than 50% were handgun owners.420 This number is generally considered low due to the reluctance of many to admit to a government agency that they own a gun. Other estimates indicate that between 41% and 49% of U.S. households are gun-owning households.

Fact: 43% of Americans claim that they own a gun.421


Myth: People do not believe that the 2nd Amendment is an individual right

Fact: A Gallup survey confirms that 73% of Americans believe the 2nd Amendment “guarantees” the right to keep guns, and that a mere 20% believe it exists to enable state militias.422

Fact: A Zogby poll423 concluded that 75% of Americans believe the right to keep and bear arms is an individual right. ABC determined the rate to be 77%.424


Myth: Most Americans favor gun control

Fact: Few “surveys” conducted in this country on the subject of gun control are unbiased. Professional survey designers have criticized both Harris and Gallup gun surveys for their construction – that the surveys have been designed to reach a desired conclusion.425

Fact: Americans believe that parents and popular culture are more responsible for violence in America than firearms.

Fact: 52% of Americans in 2006 did not believe more gun control is needed.426

Fact: Only 39% believe stricter gun control is needed, down from 43% in an earlier poll.427


420 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, 1997.

421 Americans by Slight Margin Say Gun in the Home Makes It Safer, Gallup Poll, October 20, 2006.

422 Public Believes Americans Have Right to Own Guns, Gallup Poll, May 27, 2008.

423 SAF survey of 1,015 likely voters, Zogby, June 2002.

424 ABC News, May 14, 2002.

425 Often these surveys use questions like "If it reduced crime, would you favor stronger gun control laws?" These questions are rephrased in headline to read "Americans demand gun control" while ignoring the leading goal of reducing crime. These surveys also fail to ask counter balancing questions to prove/disprove any bias in questions. A counter-balancing question might be: "If it were shown that gun control laws were ineffective in preventing crime, would you favor enacting more gun control laws?"

426 Rasmussen Reports, February 19, 2006.

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Offline bearpaw

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #61 on: February 18, 2013, 09:30:05 PM »
Fact: Not according to a number of polls:

• In a 2000 poll by the Associated Press, 42% preferred stricter enforcement; 33% preferred stricter laws
• In a 2000 poll by ABC News/Washington Post, 53% preferred stricter enforcement; 33% preferred stricter laws
• In a 2000 survey by Portrait of America, 58% preferred stricter enforcement over stricter laws. 428

Fact: A 1999 survey by CBS (hardly a pro gun organization) found these responses:

• Only 14% of Americans believe that gun control can prevent violence with guns.
• 56% of people said enforcement of existing laws is the better way to reduce violent crime than new gun control laws.
• Only 4% said gun control should be a top issue for the government.

Fact: A well-constructed survey by Time Magazine showed some interesting results. From 33,202 adult Americans surveyed in 1998: (see chart below)

Fact: A 1999 survey by the Associated Press showed:

• A plurality (49%) felt enforcing existing laws was the key to reducing violent crime.
• 52% felt that background checks did not help reduce the number of crimes committed with guns.


Myth: People want to ban handguns

Fact: Only 29% of Americans believe handguns should be banned from private ownership and this rate is down from 60% when polling began in the 1950’s.429


427 Rasmussen Reports, October 05, 2009

428 Portrait of America Survey, August 2000.

429 Before Recent Shootings, Gun-Control Support Was Fading, Gallup Poll, April 8, 2009.

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #62 on: February 18, 2013, 09:41:29 PM »
Myth: People oppose concealed carry

Fact: Ignoring for a moment that 42 states have enacted shall-issue concealed carry laws or do not require any permit, a 2009 survey showed 83% support concealed carry laws as they are commonly enacted.430

Fact: According to an AOL.com poll in March 2000:

Fact: A 2000 Zogby telephone survey of 1,201 adults concluded that, by almost a two-to-one margin, Americans prefer enforcement of existing laws instead of new and tougher gun legislation to fight crime. The same poll found that 68% of the public disagrees with cities suing gun makers for the criminal misuse of guns.

Fact: A December 2000 Zogby poll of 1,028 American adults showed that they felt enforcing current laws was the “best way to solve gun violence in America.”

Fact: A January 2001 Zogby, “American Values,” poll found that 66% of voters felt that the U.S. should spend more money enforcing current laws including mandatory jail time for those who commit a crime with a handgun, while only 26% felt there should be more gun control laws including mandatory gun locks.


Myth: More and more Americans support stricter gun control

Fact: The Gallup Poll has been asking Americans this question since 1990 and in the 16 years thereafter, the number supporting stricter gun control has fallen from 78% to 56%.431


430 Zogby, August 4, 2009

431 Americans by Slight Margin Say Gun in the Home Makes It Safer, Gallup Poll, October 20, 2006.

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Fact: Twice as many Americans currently reject the idea of a handgun ban, though a majority favored such a ban in 1959.432


Myth: Most people think guns in the home are dangerous

Fact: Gallup poll concludes that a slight plurality (47% vs. 43%) believe that having a firearm in the home makes it safer.433


Myth: People want local government to ban guns

Fact: Only 20% of people believe local gun control is permissible – 69% disagree.434


432 Ibid.

433 Gallop Poll, October 12, 2006

434 Rasmussen Reports, October 05, 2009

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Offline bearpaw

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #63 on: February 18, 2013, 09:49:09 PM »
GUN CONTROL PROPONENTS

Politicians

BILL CLINTON, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“Only the police should have handguns.“
“When personal freedom's being abused, you have to move to limit it. That's what we did in the announcement I made last weekend on the public housing projects, about how we're going to have weapon sweeps” 435

Fact: Wang Jun – son of the late Chinese President Wang Zhen – who is chairman of the China International Trade and Investment Company and President of Polytechnologies Corp., attended a White House coffee with Clinton in February 1996 and was granted a meeting with Commerce Secretary Ronald Brown the next day.

He was also connected to more than $600,000 in illegal campaign contributions to the Democrats, the report said. Polytechnologies is an arms-trading company indicted for trying to smuggle 2,000 Chinese AK-47 assault rifles into the United States and it is the largest of the corporate structures owned by the People's Liberation Army.436

V.I. LENIN
“One man with a gun can control 100 without one. ... Make mass searches and hold executions for found arms.“

DIANNE FEINSTEIN, U.S. SENATOR FROM CALIFORNIA
“Banning guns addresses a fundamental right of all Americans to feel safe.”437
“If I could have gotten 51 votes in the Senate of the United States for an outright ban, picking up every one of them; ‘Mr. and Mrs. America, turn 'em all in,’ I would have done it.”438
“The National Guard fulfills the militia mentioned in the Second amendment. Citizens no longer need to protect the states or themselves.”

JOSEPH STALIN
“If the opposition disarms, well and good. If it refuses to disarm, we shall disarm it ourselves.”

FRANK LAUTENBERG, U.S. SENATOR FROM NEW JERSEY
“We have other legislation that all of you are aware that I have been so active on, with my colleagues here, and that is to shut down the gun shows.”439


435 Enough is Enough, MTV, March 22, 1994

436 CNN May 24, 1999

437 Associated Press, November 18, 1993

438 60 Minutes, CBS, February 5, 1995

439 Press conference on March 1, 2000

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ADOLF HITLER
“The most foolish mistake we could possibly make would be to allow the subject races to possess arms. History shows that all conquerors who have allowed their subject races to carry arms have prepared their own downfall by so doing.”440

GISELA KALLENBACH, GERMAN MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
“We in Europe … do not consider the freedom to buy weapons a human right.”441

HOWARD METZENBAUM, FORMER U.S. SENATOR
“No, we're not looking at how to control criminals ... we're talking about banning the AK-47 and semi-automatic guns.”

CHARLES PASHAYAN, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE FROM CALIFORNIA
“All of this has to be understood as part of a process leading ultimately to a treaty that will give an international body power over our domestic laws.”442

PETE STARK, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE FROM CALIFORNIA
“If a bill to ban handguns came to the house floor, I would vote for it.”443

WILLIAM CLAY, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE FROM MISSOURI
“We need much stricter gun control, and eventually should bar the ownership of handguns.”

JOSEPH BIDEN, U.S. SENATOR FROM DELAWARE
“Banning guns is an idea whose time has come.”

JOHN CHAFEE, FORMER U.S. SENATOR FROM RHODE ISLAND
“I shortly will introduce legislation banning the sale, manufacture or possession of handguns (with exceptions for law enforcement and licensed target clubs). It is time to act. We cannot go on like this. Ban them!”444

JAN SCHAKOWSKY, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE FROM ILLINOIS
“I believe.....this is my final word......I believe that I'm supporting the Constitution of the United States which does not give the right for any individual to own a handgun....”445

MAJOR OWENS, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE FROM NEW YORK
“We have to start with a ban on the manufacturing and import of handguns. From there we register the guns which are currently owned, and follow that with additional bans and acquisitions of handguns and rifles with no sporting purpose.”


440 Hitler's Secret Conversations, trans. Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens, Signet Books, 1961, 403

441 EU legislators push together gun controls, International Herald Tribune, November 29, 2007

442 United Nations Conference on Small Arms, 2001

443 Town Hall Meeting, June 1999, Fremont California

444 In View of Handguns' Effects, There's Only One Answer: A Ban, Minneapolis Star Tribune, June 15, 1992, at 13A

445 Tape recorded on June 25, 2000 by Matt Beauchamp at the Chicago Gay Pride Parade

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BOBBY RUSH, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE FROM ILLINOIS
“My staff and I right now are working on a comprehensive gun-control bill. We don't have all the details, but for instance, regulating the sale and purchase of bullets. Ultimately, I would like to see the manufacture and possession of handguns banned except for military and police use. But that's the endgame. And in the meantime, there are some specific things that we can do with legislation.”446

FERDINAND E. MARCOS, FORMER PRESIDENT/DICTATOR OF THE PHILIPPINES
President Marcos declared Martial Law by virtue of Proclamation No.1081 on Sept.21, 1972 and on the following day issued General Order No. 6 declaring that no person shall keep, possess or carry any firearms with penalties ranging up to death. The Philippines was under his dictatorship for the next 14 years.

ACTS OF VIOLENCE COMMITTED BY MEMBERS OF GUN CONTROL ORGANIZATIONS
• Barbara Graham, speaker at the “Million Mom March” in 2000, was convicted of shooting and paralyzing for life a man she mistook as one who had killed her son.447
• In Fort Collins, a woman who opposes the right of self-defense struck a member of the Tyranny Response Team with a clipboard.448
• At a rally in Boulder early in 2000, Robert Howell, vice president of the anti-gun Boulder Bell Campaign, attacked Shariar Ghalam, bloodying his nose. (Ghalam was carrying a concealed handgun but never drew it, not believing his life was in danger.)
• In the summer of 2000, supporters of the anti-gun Million Mom March stole supplies from the Second Amendment Sisters and vandalized SAS property.449
• Ari Armstrong, a pro-civil rights activist in Colorado, received threatening telephone calls allegedly from members of S.A.F.E (an anti-gun group) after Ari appeared on television promoting firearm freedoms.450
Anti-freedom political activists

THE COALITION TO STOP GUN VIOLENCE
“It is our aim to ban the manufacture and sale of handguns to private individuals.”451
“We will never fully solve our nation's horrific problem of gun violence unless we ban the manufacture and sale of handguns and semiautomatic assault weapons.”452


446 Chicago Tribune, December 5, 1999

447 Mother Convicted in Shooting, Washington Post, February 2, 2001, Page B01 – Woman Goes on Trial In Ambush Shooting, January 24, 2001, Page B01

448 New gun laws by force, Boulder Weekly, August 24, 2000

449 Million Mom Marchers ransack pro-gun display, WorldNetDaily, August 1, 2000

450 Compiled and reported by the Boulder Weekly, August 24, 2000

451 Recruiting flyer, 1996

452 Jeff Muchnick, Legislative Director, USA Today, December 29, 1993

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Offline bearpaw

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #64 on: February 18, 2013, 10:01:50 PM »
NELSON T. “PETE” SHIELDS, CHAIRMAN EMERITUS, HANDGUN CONTROL, INC.453
“The final problem is to make the possession of all handguns and all handgun ammunition except for the military, policemen, licensed security guards, licensed sporting clubs, and licensed gun collectors -- totally illegal.”454
“Yes, I'm for an outright ban [on handguns].”455
“We'll take one step at a time, and the first is necessarily - given the political realities - very modest. We'll have to start working again to strengthen the law, and then again to strengthen the next law and again and again. Our ultimate goal, total control of handguns, is going to take time. The first problem is to slow down production and sales. Next is to get registration. The final problem is to make possession of all handguns and ammunition (with a few exceptions) totally illegal.”456

SARAH BRADY, CHAIRPERSON FOR HANDGUN CONTROL, INC. (NOW THE BRADY CAMPAIGN)
“I don't believe gun owners have rights.”457
“We would like to see, in the future, what we will probably call needs-based licensing of all weapons. ...Where it would make it much more difficult for anybody to be able to purchase handguns....”458
“To me, the only reason for guns in civilian hands is for sporting purposes.”459

JIM BRADY
“[Using handguns] for target shooting, that’s okay. Get a license and go to the range. For defense of the home, that’s why we have police.”460

ELLIOT CORBETT, SECRETARY, NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR A RESPONSIBLE FIREARMS POLICY
“Handguns should be outlawed.”

Bernard Parks, Chief of Police, L.A. California
“We would get rid of assault weapons. There would not be an assault weapon in the United States, whether it's for a show or someone having it in a collection.”461

Josh Sugarmann, Executive Director of the Violence Policy Center
“ ... immediately call on Congress to pass far-reaching industry regulation like the Firearms Safety and Consumer Protection Act ... [which] would give the Treasury Department health and safety authority over the gun industry, and any rational regulator with that authority would ban handguns.”462


453 It is interesting to note that HCI was originally named National Council to Ban Handguns.

454 The New Yorker, July 26, 1976

455 60 Minutes interview

456 New Yorker Magazine, June 26, 1976, pg. 53

457 Handguns in America, Hearst Newspapers Special Report, October 1997

458 Sarah Brady speech to the Women's National Democratic Club, Sept. 21, 1993

459 Tampa Tribune, Oct 21, 1993

460 Parade Magazine, June 26, 1994

461 Reuters, June 9, 2000

462 Houston Chronicle, Nov. 5, 1999

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PATRICK V. MURPHY, FORMER NEW YORK CITY POLICE COMMISSIONER
“We are at the point in time and terror where nothing short of a strong uniform policy of domestic disarmament will alleviate the danger which is crystal clear and perilously present. Let us take the guns away from the people.”463

AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION (ACLU)
“We urge passage of federal legislation ... to prohibit ... the private ownership and possession of handguns.”464

ROSIE O'DONNELL, TV TALK SHOW HOSTESS
“I think there should be a law -- and I know this is extreme -- that no one can have a gun in the U.S. If you have a gun, you go to jail. Only the police should have guns."465
“I don't care if you want to hunt, I don't care if you think it's your right. I say, sorry, you are not allowed to own a gun, and if you do own a gun I think you should go to prison.”466

VIOLENCE POLICY CENTER
“[Gun] licensing systems are very expensive to administer ... licensing and registration in America would have little effect on the vast majority of gun violence.”
“[We are] the largest national gun control advocacy group seeking a ban on handgun production.”467

ALAN M. DERSHOWITZ, LAWYER AND FRANKFURTER PROFESSOR OF LAW
“The Second Amendment has no place in modern society.”468

BROOKS BROWN, SAFE COLORADO
“It was worth lying to him or deceiving him.”469


463 Testimony to the National Association of Citizens Crime Commissions

464 Board of Directors in September 1976 - see national ACLU policy #47

465 Ottawa Sun, April 29, 1999

466 The Rosie O'Donnell Show April 19, 1999

467 Politics, paranoia fuel war of words over guns, The Times Union, October 18, 2004

468 The Crimson Daily, April 9, 2003

469 SAFE Colorado Says Washington Stunt Was Irresponsible, The Denver Channel, July 26, 2001, discussing an attempt to influence a congressman on a gun control bill

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The media

MICHAEL GARDNER, PRESIDENT OF NBC NEWS
“There is no reason for anyone in this country ... to buy, to own, to have, to use a handgun. ...The only way to control handgun use in this country is to prohibit the guns.” 470
“In fact, only police, soldiers -- and, maybe, licensed target ranges -- should have handguns. No one else needs one.” 471

EDITORIAL, LOS ANGELES TIMES
“Why should America adopt a policy of near-zero tolerance for private gun ownership? Because it's the only alternative to the present insanity. Without both strict limits on access to new weapons and aggressive efforts to reduce the supply of existing weapons, no one can be safe.”472
“The Times supports a near-total ban on the manufacture and private ownership of handguns and assault weapons, leaving those guns almost exclusively in the hands of law enforcement officials.”473

JACK E.WHITE, TIME MAGAZINE NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT
“Why not just ban the ownership of handguns when nobody needs one? Why not just ban semi-automatic rifles? Nobody needs one.”474

GARY WILLS, SYNDICATED COLUMNIST
“Every civilized society must disarm its citizens against each other.”475

The media in general
A two-year study by the Media Research Center concluded that television reporters are overwhelmingly opposed to Second Amendment rights. For broadcasts from major networks from July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1997, covering 244 gun policy stories:

• The ratio of anti-gun to pro-gun bias was 16:1.
• Anti-gun spokespeople (Sarah Brady, etc) were given three times the number of sound bites than pro-gun spokespeople (NRA, etc).

The American government
The following exchange is from the appeal of the case of U.S. vs. Emerson in the Fifth Circuit Court. Meteja was the attorney for the U.S. Government.


470 USA Today, January 16, 1992

471 The Wall Street Journal, January 10, 1991

472 Taming the Monster: Get Rid of the Guns, Dec. 28, 1993

473 Taming the Monster: The Guns Among Us, Dec. 10, 1993

474 Washington Times, May 8, 1999

475 Philadelphia Inquirer, May 17, 1981

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____________________________________________________________


Judge Garwood: [to federal lawyer] "You are saying that the Second Amendment is consistent with a position that you can take guns away from the public? You can restrict ownership of rifles, pistols and shotguns from all people? Is that the position of the United States?"

Meteja: [federal lawyer] "Yes"

Garwood: "Is it the position of the United States that persons who are not in the National Guard are afforded no protections under the Second Amendment?"

Meteja: Exactly.

Meteja then said that even membership in the National Guard isn't enough to protect the private ownership of a firearm. It wouldn't protect the guns owned at the home of someone in the National Guard.

Garwood: Membership in the National Guard isn't enough? What else is needed?
Meteja: The weapon in question must be used in the National Guard.

GEORGE NAPPER, ATLANTA PUBLIC-SAFETY COMMISSIONER
“If I had my druthers, the only people who would have guns would be those who enforce the law.”476

JANET RENO, FORMER U.S. ATTORNEY GENERAL
“The most effective means of fighting crime in the United States is to outlaw the possession of any type of firearm by the civilian populace.” 477

MARION BARRY, FORMER MAYOR,WASHINGTON, D.C.
“Our neighbors in Virginia are just as responsible for these killings as the criminals are because they won't pass strong gun [control] legislation.”478 (ed: The claim being that citizens of Virginia were responsible for murders committed in Washington, D.C..)


476 U.S. News and World Report

477 Addressing a 1984 B'nai B'rith gathering in Coral Gables, Florida, per affidavit written by Fred Diamond of Miami.

478 This Week With David Brinkley, ABC TV, March 19, 1989

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Offline bearpaw

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #65 on: February 18, 2013, 10:09:08 PM »
GUN CONTROL OPPONENTS

JOHN F. KENNEDY, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“Today, we need a nation of Minutemen, citizens who are not only prepared to take arms, but citizens who regard the preservation of freedom as the basic purpose of their daily life and who are willing to consciously work and sacrifice for that freedom.“
“By calling attention to 'a well regulated militia,' the 'security' of the nation, and the right of each citizen 'to keep and bear arms,' our founding fathers recognized the essentially civilian nature of our economy. Although it is extremely unlikely that the fears of governmental tyranny, which gave rise to the Second Amendment, will ever be a major danger to our nation, the Amendment still remains an important declaration of our basic civilian-military relationships, in which every citizen must be ready to participate in the defense of his country. For that reason I believe the Second Amendment will always be important.”479

MAHATMA GANDHI, PEACEFUL REVOLUTIONARY
“Among the many misdeeds of the British rule in India, history will look upon the Act depriving a whole nation of arms, as the blackest.”

ARISTOTLE
“Those who have the command of the arms in a country are masters of the state, and have it in their power to make what revolutions they please. [Thus,] there is no end to observations on the difference between the measures likely to be pursued by a minister backed by a standing army, and those of a court awed by the fear of an armed people.”

THE DALAI LAMA
“If someone has a gun and is trying to kill you, it would be reasonable to shoot back with your own gun.”480

GEORGE ORWELL
“The totalitarian states can do great things, but there is one thing they cannot do: they cannot give the factory-worker a rifle and tell him to take it home and keep it in his bedroom. That rifle, hanging on the wall of the working-class flat or laborer’s cottage, is the symbol of democracy. It is our job to see that it stays there.”481

HUBERT HUMPHREY, FORMER U.S. SENATOR AND VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“Certainly one of the chief guarantees of freedom under any government, no matter how popular and respected, is the right of citizens to keep and bear arms ... The right of citizens to bear arms is just one guarantee against arbitrary government, one more safeguard against tyranny.”482

479 Know Your Lawmakers, Guns Magazine, April 1960, Page 4

480 Dalai Lama urges students to shape world, Seattle Times, May 15, 2001

481 Don't Let Colonel Blimp Ruin the Home Guard, Evening Standard, , Jan 8, 1941

482 Know Your Lawmakers, Guns Magazine, Feb 1960, Page 6

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JOHN ADAMS, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“Resistance to sudden violence, for the preservation not only of my person, my limbs, and life, but of my property, is an indisputable right of nature which I have never surrendered to the public by the compact of society, and which perhaps, I could not surrender if I would.”483
“Here, every private person is authorized to arm himself, and on the strength of this authority, I do not deny the inhabitants had a right to arm themselves at that time, for their defense, not for offense.”484

ST. GEORGE TUCKER, AMERICAN REVOLUTION MAJOR AND POST REVOLUTION JUDGE
“In America we may reasonably hope that the people will never cease to regard the right of keeping and bearing arms as the surest pledge of their liberty.”485

WALTER MONDALE, FORMER VICE PRESIDENT AND U.S. AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN
“Gun bans don't disarm criminals, gun bans attract them.”486

THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR OF THE AMERICAN DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
“No freeman shall be debarred the use of arms (within his own lands or tenements).”487
“What country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance. Let them take arms.”488
“The constitutions of most of our States assert that all power is inherent in the people; that ... it is their right and duty to be at all times armed.”489
“One loves to possess arms, though they hope never to have occasion for them.”490
“I learn with great concern that [one] portion of our frontier so interesting, so important, and so exposed, should be so entirely unprovided with common fire-arms. I did not suppose any part of the United States so destitute of what is considered as among the first necessaries of a farm-house.”491
“None but an armed nation can dispense with a standing army. To keep ours armed and disciplined is therefore at all times important.”


483 Boston Gazette, Sept. 5, 1763

484 Legal Papers of John Adams, Butterfield and Zobel; 1965, opening statement as defense counsel for British soldiers on trial for the Boston Massacre in 1770

485 American Blackstone, 1803

486 April 20, 1994

487 Draft Virginia Constitution (with his note added), Thomas Jefferson, 1776. Papers 1:353

488 Letter to James Madison, Dec. 20, 1787, in Papers of Jefferson, ed. Boyd et al.

489 Thomas Jefferson to John Cartwright, 1824. Millennium Edition of The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 16:45

490 Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, 1796. Millennium Edition of The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 9:341

491 Thomas Jefferson to Jacob J. Brown, 1808. Millennium Edition of The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 11:432

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JAMES MADISON, AMERICAN FOUNDING FATHER
“[The Constitution preserves] the advantage of being armed which Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation ... [where] the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms.”

OLIVER STONE, MOVIE DIRECTOR
“I like automatic weapons. I fought for my right to use them in Vietnam.”

PATRICK HENRY, AMERICAN FOUNDING FATHER AND CATALYST FOR THE BILL OF RIGHTS
“The great objective is that every man be armed ... Everyone who is able may have a gun.”

MACHIAVELLI
“The Swiss are well armed and enjoy great freedom”492
“From this we plainly see the folly and imprudence of demanding a thing, and saying beforehand that it is intended to be used for evil … For it is enough to ask a man to give up his arms, without telling him that you intend killing him with them; after you have the arms in hand, then you can do your will with them.”493

TENCHE COXE, REVOLUTIONARY ERA WRITER
“As civil rulers, not having their duty to the people before them, may attempt to tyrannize, and as the military forces which must be occasionally raised to defend our country, might pervert their power to the injury of their fellow citizens, the people are confirmed by the article in their right to keep and bear their private arms.”494
“Congress have no power to disarm the militia. Their swords, and every other terrible implement of the soldier, are the birthright of an American ... The unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or state government, but, where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the people”495

MALCOLM X, AMERICAN BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST
“It is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks. It is legal and lawful to own a shotgun or a rifle. We believe in obeying the law.” 496
“... I must say this concerning the great controversy over rifles and shotguns. The only thing I've ever said is that in areas where the government has proven itself either unwilling or unable to defend the lives and the property of Negroes, it's time for Negroes to defend themselves. Article number two of the constitutional amendments provides you and me the right to own a rifle or a shotgun. It is constitutionally legal to own a shotgun or a rifle.”497

492 In Switzerland, males age 20 to 42 serving in the army are required to keep rifles or pistols at home

493 Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, Niccolò Machiavelli

494 Remarks on the First Part of the Amendments to the Federal Constitution under the pseudonym ‘A Pennsylvanian' in the Philadelphia Federal Gazette, June 18, 1789 at 2 col. 1

495 Pennsylvania Gazette, Feb. 20, 1788

496 Statement to the press, March 12, 1964

497 Malcolm X Speaks, Merit Publishers, 1965

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #66 on: February 18, 2013, 10:15:15 PM »
SAMUEL ADAMS, MEMBER OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
“That the said Constitution shall never be construed to authorize Congress to infringe the just liberty of the press or the rights of conscience; or to prevent the people of The United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms.”498

WILLIAM RAWLE, POST-REVOLUTION U.S. ATTORNEY
“The prohibition is general. No clause in the Constitution could by any rule of construction be conceived to give to Congress a power to disarm the people. Such a flagitious attempt could only be made under some general pretense by a state legislature. But if in any blind pursuit of inordinate power, either should attempt it, this amendment may be appealed to as a restraint on both.”499

THOMAS PAINE, AMERICAN REVOLUTION POLITICAL PHILOSOPHER
“Arms, like laws, discourage and keep the invader and plunderer in awe and preserve order. "

MAFIA INFORMANT SAMMY “THE BULL” GRAVANO
“Gun control? It's the best thing you can do for crooks and gangsters. I want you to have nothing. If I'm a bad guy, I'm always gonna have a gun. Safety locks? You will pull the trigger with a lock on, and I'll pull the trigger. We'll see who wins.”

RICHARD HENRY LEE, MEMBER OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
“Whereas, to preserve liberty, it is essential that the whole body of the people always possess arms, and be taught alike, especially when young, how to use them;”500

ALEXANDER HAMILTON, AUTHOR OF THE FEDERALIST PAPERS
“The best we can hope for concerning the people at large is that they be properly armed.”501

ZACHARIAH JOHNSON
“The people are not to be disarmed of their weapons. They are left in full possession of them.”502

TIMOTHY DWIGHT, ARMY CHAPLAIN DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
“To trust arms in the hands of the people at large has, in Europe, been believed ... to be an experiment fraught only with danger. Here by a long trial it has been proved to be perfectly harmless ... If the government be equitable; if it be reasonable in its exactions; if proper attention be paid to the education of children in knowledge and religion, few men will be disposed to use arms, unless for their amusement, and for the defense of themselves and their country.”503


498 Debates and Proceedings in the Convention of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, at 86-87

499 A View of the Constitution 125-6 (2nd ed. 1829)

500 Letters from the Federal Farmer to the Republican, at 21,22,124

501 The Federalist Papers at 184-8

502 Debates in the Several State Conventions, Jonathan Elliot, 646

503 Travels in New England and New York, 1823

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CHARLES KRAUTHAMMER, SYNDICATED COLUMNIST
“The Brady Bill's only effect will be to desensitize the public to regulation of weapons in preparation for their ultimate confiscation.” 504
“Passing a law like the assault weapons ban is a symbolic, purely symbolic move. ... Its only real justification is not to reduce crime but to desensitize the public to the regulation of weapons in preparation for their ultimate confiscation.”505


504 The Washington Post, April 5, 1996

505 Ibid

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #67 on: February 18, 2013, 10:31:27 PM »
THE SECOND AMENDMENT

Justification clause: "A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State,"
Rights clause: "the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed."
The justification clause does not modify, restrict, or deny the rights clause.506
For a full discussion of how the 2nd Amendment was created and revised, see “Origin of the 2nd Amendment” in the “Miscellaneous information” section of this book.


Myth: The Supreme Court ruled the Second Amendment is not an individual right

Fact: In D.C. v Heller the Supreme Court (2008) firmly established the 2nd Amendment is an individual right, as they had in Cruikshank and Dred Scott.

Fact: In McDonald v Chicago (2010) the Supreme Court concluded the right is incorporated against the states via the 14th Amendment.

Fact: Of 300 decisions of the federal and state courts that have taken a position on the meaning of the Second Amendment or the state analogs to it, only 10 have claimed that the right to keep and bear arms is not an individual right. Many of the other decisions struck down gun control laws because they conflicted with the Second Amendment, such as State v. Nunn (Ga. 1846).507

Fact: In the Dred Scott case of 1856, the Supreme Court listed the protected rights of citizens and explicitly listed the right to keep and bear arms, and gave this right equal weight to the other freedoms enumerated in the constitution.


Myth: The Second Amendment is a collective right, not an individual right

Fact: St. George Tucker, any early legal commentator and authority of the original meaning of the constitution wrote in Blackstone’s Commentaries "Nor will the constitution permit any prohibition of arms to the people”.508

Fact: The Second Amendment was listed in a Supreme Court ruling as an individual right.509

Fact: The Supreme Court specifically reaffirmed that the right to keep and bear arms did not belong to the government.510

Fact: In 22 of the 27 instances where the Supreme Court mentions the Second Amendment, they quote the rights clause and not the justification clause.


506 Eugene Volokh, Prof. Law, UCLA

507 For the Defense of Themselves and the State: The Original Intent and Judicial Interpretation of the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Clayton Cramer, Praeger Press, 1994

508 Blackstone’s Commentaries, St. GeorgeTucker, Vol 1. Note D. Part 6. Restraints on Powers of Congress (1803).

509 Dred Scott, Casey v. Planned Parenthood, U.S. v. Cruikshank and others

510 United States v. Miller

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Fact: Courts disagree. “We find that the history of the Second Amendment reinforces the plain meaning of its text, namely that it protects individual Americans in their right to keep and bear arms whether or not they are a member of a select militia or performing active military service or training” and “We reject the collective rights and sophisticated collective rights models for interpreting the Second Amendment.”511

Fact: Citizens disagree. 62% believe the 2nd Amendment guarantees an individual right, while a mere 28% believe it protects the power of the states to form militias.512

Fact: There are 23 state constitutions with RKBA clauses adopted between the Revolution and 1845, and 20 of them are explicitly individual in nature, only three have "for the common defense" or other “collective rights” clauses.513

Fact: James Madison, considered to be the author of the Bill of Rights, wrote that the Bill of Rights was "calculated to secure the personal rights of the people". He never excluded the Second Amendment from this statement.

Fact: Patrick Henry commented on the Swiss militia model (still in use today) noting that they maintain their independence without "a mighty and splendid President" or a standing army.514

Fact: "The congress of the United States possesses no power to regulate, or interfere with the domestic concerns, or police of any state: it belongs not to them to establish any rules respecting the rights of property; nor will the constitution permit any prohibition of arms to the people; or of peaceable assemblies by them, for any purposes whatsoever, and in any number, whenever they may see occasion."515

Fact: Tench Coxe, in Remarks on the First Part of the Amendments to the Federal Constitution said: "As civil rulers, not having their duty to the people duly before them, may attempt to tyrannize, and as the military forces which must be occasionally raised to defend our country, might pervert their power to the injury of their fellow-citizens, the people are confirmed by the next article in their right to keep and bear their private arms.”


Myth: The "militia" clause is to arm the National Guard

Fact: “Militia” is a Latin abstract noun, meaning "military service", not an "armed group", and that is the way the Latin-literate Founders used it. To the Romans, "military service" included law enforcement and disaster response. Today “militia” might be more meaningfully translated as "defense service", associated with a "defense duty", which attaches to individuals as much as to groups of them, organized or otherwise. When we are alone, we are all militias of one. In the broadest sense, militia is the exercise of civic virtue. 516


511 U.S. v. Emerson, 5th court of Appeals decision, November 2, 2001, No. 99-10331

512 Associated Television News Survey, August 1999, 1,007 likely voters

513 For the Defense of Themselves and the State: The Original Intent and Judicial Interpretation of the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Clayton Cramer, , Praeger Press, 1994, cited as an authority in USA v. Emerson (N.D. Texas 1999)

514 Where Kids and Guns Do Mix, Stephen P. Halbrook, Wall Street Journal, June 2000

515 Blackstone’s Commentaries, St. George Tucker, Volume 1 Appendix Note D., 1803 – Tucker's comments provide a number of insights into the consensus for interpretation of the Constitution that prevailed shortly after its ratification, after the debates had settled down and the Constitution was put into practice.

516 Militia, The Constitution Society, www.constitution.org

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Fact: The Dick Act of 1903 designated the National Guard as the "organized militia" and that all other citizens were the "unorganized militia" – thus the National Guard is only part of the militia, and the whole militia is composed of the population at large. Before 1903, the National Guard had no federal definition as part of the militia at all.

Fact: The first half of the Second Amendment is called the "justification clause". Justification clauses appear in many state constitutions, and cover liberties including right to trial, freedom of the press, free speech, and more. Denying gun rights based on the justification clause means we would have to deny free speech rights on the same basis.517

Fact: The origin of the phrase "a well regulated militia" comes from a 1698 treatise "A Discourse of Government with Relation to Militias" by Andrew Fletcher, in which the term "well regulated" was equated with "well-behaved" or "disciplined".518

Fact: “We have found no historical evidence that the Second Amendment was intended to convey militia power to the states, limit the federal government's power to maintain a standing army, or applies only to members of a select militia while on active duty. All of the evidence indicates that the Second Amendment, like other parts of the Bill of Rights, applies to and protects individual Americans.”519

Fact: “The plain meaning of the right of the people to keep arms is that it is an individual, rather than a collective, right and is not limited to keeping arms while engaged in active military service or as a member of a select militia such as the National Guard ...”520

Fact: Most of the 13 original states (and many colonies/territories that became states after ratification of the Constitution and before or shortly after ratification of the Bill of Rights) had their own constitutions, and it is from these that the original Bill of Rights was distilled. The state constitutions of that time had many “right to keep and bear arms” clauses that clearly guaranteed an individual right. Some examples include:

Connecticut: “Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the state.”

Kentucky: “The right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.”

Pennsylvania: “That the people have a right to bear arms for the defense of themselves and the state ... The right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.”

Rhode Island: “The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.”

Vermont: “The people have a right to bear arms for the defense of themselves and the State.”


517 Eugene Volokh, Prof. Law, UCLA, http://www.law.ucla.edu/faculty/volokh/beararms/testimon.htm

518 This document was widely published during the colonial and revolutionary periods, and was the basis for state and federal 'bills of rights'.

519 U.S. v. Emerson, 5th court of Appeals decision, November 2, 2001, No. 99-10331

520 Ibid

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #68 on: February 18, 2013, 10:43:21 PM »
Myth: U.S. v. Cruikshank denied an individual right to bear arms

Fact: The court ruled that both the 2nd Amendment right to bear arms and the 1st Amendment right to assembly were "pre-existing rights" and that it was incumbent upon the states to enforce that right. Specifically the court ruled:

The right was not created by the amendment; neither was its continuance guaranteed, except as against congressional interference. For their protection in its enjoyment, therefore, the people must look to the States.


Myth: U.S. v. Miller said that the Second Amendment is not an individual right

Fact: The Miller case specifically held that specific types of guns might be protected by the Second Amendment. It depended on whether a gun had militia use, and the court wanted evidence presented confirming that citizens have a right to military style weapons. Since no evidence was taken at the trial level in lower courts, they remanded the case for a new trial. Specifically the court said:

"The signification attributed to the term Militia appears from the debates in the Convention, the history and legislation of Colonies and States, and the writings of approved commentators. These show plainly enough that the Militia comprised all males physically capable of acting in concert for the common defense. "A body of citizens enrolled for military discipline." And further, that ordinarily when called for service these men were expected to appear bearing arms supplied by themselves and of the kind in common use at the time."

“In the absence of any evidence tending to show that possession or use of a ‘shotgun having a barrel of less than 18 inches in length’ at this time has some reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well-regulated militia, we cannot say that the Second Amendment guarantees the right to keep and bear such an instrument. Certainly it is not within judicial notice that this weapon is any part of the ordinary military equipment or that its use could contribute to the common defense.”

Fact: Even the US government agreed. Here are some sentences from the brief filed by the government in the appeal to the Supreme Court:

“The Second Amendment does not grant to the people the right to keep and bear arms, but merely recognizes the prior existence of that right and prohibits its infringement by Congress.”

“The ‘arms’ referred to in the Second Amendment are, moreover, those which ordinarily are used for military or public defense purposes.”

“The Second Amendment does not confer upon the people the right to keep and bear arms; it is one of the provisions of the Constitution which, recognizing the prior existence of a certain right, declares that it shall not be infringed by Congress. Thus the right to keep and bear arms is not a right granted by the Constitution and therefore is not dependant upon that instrument for its source.”

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Fact: The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit holds that the Miller case protects an individual right to keep and bear arms. “An individual's right to bear arms is constitutionally protected.”521

Fact: Federal courts reject the myth. “We conclude that Miller does not support the [government's] collective rights or sophisticated collective rights approach to the Second Amendment.” 522 They continue, “There is no evidence in the text of the Second Amendment, or any other part of the Constitution, that the words ‘we the people’ have a different connotation within the Second Amendment than when employed elsewhere ...”.


Summary of various court decisions concerning gun rights

DECISIONS THAT EXPLICITLY RECOGNIZED THAT THE SECOND AMENDMENT GUARANTEES AN INDIVIDUAL RIGHT TO PURCHASE, POSSESS OR CARRY FIREARMS, AND IT LIMITS THE AUTHORITY OF BOTH FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS:
• Parker vs. D.C., Fed (2007), confirmed an individual right to keep arms and overturning a handgun ban.
• U.S. vs. Emerson, 5 Fed (1999), confirmed an individual right requiring compelling government interest for regulation.
• Nunn v. State, 1 Ga. 243, 250, 251 (1846) (struck down a ban on sale of small, easily concealed handguns as violating Second Amendment).
• State v. Chandler, 5 La.An. 489, 490, 491 (1850) (upheld a ban on concealed carry, but acknowledged that open carry was protected by Second Amendment).
• Smith v. State, 11 La.An. 633, 634 (1856) (upheld a ban on concealed carry, but recognized as protected by Second Amendment "arms there spoken of are such as are borne by a people in war, or at least carried openly"). Court Rulings on the 2nd AmendmentIndividual rights97%Collective rights3%
• State v. Jumel, 13 La.An. 399, 400 (1858) (upheld a ban on concealed carry, but acknowledged a Second Amendment right to carry openly).
• Cockrum v. State, 24 Tex. 394, 401, 402 (1859) (upheld an enhanced penalty for manslaughter with a Bowie knife, but acknowledged that the Second Amendment guaranteed an individual right to possess arms for collective overthrow of the government).


521 U.S. v. Hutzel, 8 Iowa, No. 99-3719

522 U.S. v. Emerson, 5th court of Appeals decision, November 2, 2001, No. 99-10331

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #69 on: February 18, 2013, 10:56:25 PM »
• In Re Brickey, 8 Ida. 597, 70 Pac. 609, 101 Am.St.Rep. 215, 216 (1902) (struck down a ban on open carry of a revolver in Lewiston, Idaho as violating both Second Amendment and Idaho Const. guarantee).

• State v. Hart, 66 Ida. 217, 157 P.2d 72 (1945) (upheld a ban on concealed carry as long as open carry was allowed based on both Second Amendment and Idaho Const. guarantee).

• State v. Nickerson, 126 Mont. 157, 166 (1952) (striking down a conviction for assault with a deadly weapon, acknowledging a right to carry based on Second Amendment and Montana Const. guarantee).

• U.S. v. Hutzell, 8 Iowa, 99-3719, (2000) (cite in dictum that "an individual's right to keep and bear arms is constitutionally protected, see United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174, 178-79 (1939).


DECISIONS THAT RECOGNIZED THE SECOND AMENDMENT GUARANTEES AN INDIVIDUAL RIGHT TO POSSESS OR CARRY FIREARMS, BUT ONLY LIMITING THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S AUTHORITY:

• U.S. v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542, 552 (1876) (limiting use of the Enforcement Act of 1870 so that Klansmen could not be punished for mass murder and disarming of freedmen).

• State v. Workman, 35 W.Va. 367, 373 (1891) (upholding a ban on carry of various concealable arms).

• State v. Kerner, 181 N.C. 574, 107 S.E. 222 (1921) (overturning a ban on open carry of pistols based on North Carolina Const., but acknowledging Second Amendment protected individual right from federal laws).


DECISIONS IN WHICH THE SECOND AMENDMENT WAS ARGUED OR RAISED AS A LIMITATION ON STATE LAWS, AND IN WHICH THE COURT RULED THAT IT ONLY LIMITED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, TACITLY ACKNOWLEDGING THAT THE RIGHT WAS INDIVIDUAL IN NATURE:

• Andrews v. State, 3 Heisk. (50 Tenn.) 165, 172, 173 (1871).

• Fife v. State, 31 Ark. 455, 25 Am.Rep. 556, 557, 558 (1876); State v. Hill, 53 Ga. 472, 473, 474 (1874).

• Dunne v. People, 94 Ill. 120, 140, 141 (1879); Presser v. Illinois, 116 U.S. 252, 265, 266 (1886) (upholding a ban on armed bodies marching through the streets).

• People v. Persce, 204 N.Y. 397, 403 (1912); In re Rameriz, 193 Cal. 633, 636, 226 P. 914 (1924) (upholding a ban on resident aliens possessing handguns).


DECISIONS IN WHICH THE SECOND AMENDMENT WAS IMPLIED TO GUARANTEE AN INDIVIDUAL RIGHT, THOUGH UNCLEAR AS TO WHETHER IT LIMITED ONLY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OR STATES AS WELL, BECAUSE THE TYPE OF ARM IN QUESTION WASN'T PROTECTED:

• English v. State, 35 Tex. 473, 476, 477 (1872).

• State v. Duke, 42 Tex. 455, 458, 459 (1875) (upholding a ban on carrying of handguns, Bowie knives, sword-canes, spears, and brass knuckles).

• People v. Liss, 406 Ill. 419, 94 N.E.2d 320, 322, 323 (1950) (overturning a conviction for carrying a concealed handgun and acknowledging that the right in the Second Amendment was individual).

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• Guida v. Dier, 84 Misc.2d 110, 375 N.Y.S.2d 827, 828 (1975) (denying that "concealable hand weapons" were protected by the Second Amendment, but acknowledging that an individual right protects other firearms).


DECISIONS IN WHICH THE SECOND AMENDMENT HAS BEEN CLASSED WITH OTHER INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, WITH NO INDICATION THAT IT WAS NOT AN INDIVIDUAL RIGHT:

• Robertson v. Baldwin, 165 U.S. 275, 281, 282, 17 S.Ct. 826, 829 (1897); U.S. v. Verdugo-Urquidez, 110 S.Ct. 1056, 1060, 1061 (1990).


DECISIONS THAT COULD HAVE BEEN VERY MUCH SHORTER IF THE COURT HAD SIMPLY DENIED THAT THE SECOND AMENDMENT PROTECTED AN INDIVIDUAL RIGHT:

• U.S. v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939) (the Supreme Court upholding the National Firearms Act of 1934, after district judge released defendants on the grounds that it violated Second Amendment).


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THOUGHTS ON GUN CONFISCATION

In 1911, Turkey established gun control. Subsequently, from 1915 to 1917, 1.5 million Armenians, deprived of the means to defend themselves, were rounded up and killed.

In 1929, the Soviet Union established gun control. Then, from 1929 to 1953, approximately 20 millon dissidents were rounded up and killed.

In 1938 Germany established gun control. From 1939 to 1945 over 13 million Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, mentally ill, union leaders, Catholics and others, unable to fire a shot in protest, were rounded up and killed.

In 1935, China established gun control. Subsequently, between 1948 and 1952, over 20 million dissidents were rounded up and killed.

In 1956, Cambodia enshrined gun control. In just two years (1975-1977) over one million "educated" people were rounded up and killed.

In 1964, Guatemala locked in gun control. From 1964 to 1981, over 100,000 Mayan Indians were rounded up and killed as a result of their inability to defend themselves.

In 1970, Uganda embraced gun control. Over the next nine years over 300,000 Christians were rounded up and killed.
In all, over 56-million people have died because of gun control in the last century.523

Senator Dianne Feinstein, speaking on "60-Minutes" said "If I thought I could get the votes, I'd have taken them all."


SERIOUS QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF

• If guns are effective enough to be a criminal's preferred tool, why are they not good enough to use for protection?

• Why do politicians insist their bodyguards be armed, but not you and me?

• If you and your children were face-to-face with a male attacker twice your size, what would you do; If you weren't armed? If you were armed?

• If guns are "too dangerous" to be in our society, then why do our leaders want to be the only ones who have them? Do you trust our leaders implicitly to protect you at all times?

• Which is better – more gun control and the eventual banning of all guns in our society, or not sitting by helplessly watching as an intruder
repeatedly rapes your 13-year-old daughter?

• If we ever completely ban guns, do you think there would be no more armed criminals in America?

• With so many gun laws already on the books, why do "gun crimes" still exist?


523 (Most of the genocide statistics were reported in:) “Death by ‘Gun Control’: The Human Cost of Victim Disarmament,” Aaron Zelman & Richard W. Stevens, 2001.

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #70 on: February 21, 2013, 01:49:32 PM »
MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS

Number of firearms in America: Between 223,000,000524 and 290,000,000525
Number of firearm owning households: At least 50,600,000526
Projected firearm owning households in America: 60-85 million
Number of guns used in crimes: 450,000527
Percentage of guns used in crimes: 0.09%


Violent crimes committed daily by paroled prisoners:
Murders: 14
Rapes: 48
Robberies: 578



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

British crime statistics

The U.K. measures crime using two different processes:
British Crime Survey (BCS): The Home Office conducts surveys of the population to determine how often subjects have been affected by criminal activity. Data is projected to reflect the entire population.

Police reporting: Crimes are reported to the police and nationwide, census-level statistics are summarized.

The BCS has been reporting a declining crime rate in the UK while police reporting has shown an increase. The BCS has routinely been criticized because it under reports crime due to the following factors:

• Murdered and imprisoned people do not answer surveys
• Some crimes are not surveyed when victims are below age 16528
• Crime against institutions (bank robbery, etc.) are not included
• Crimes are recorded at final disposition (conviction/acquittal), leaving many crimes completely unreported529

524 Guns Used in Crime, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Marianne W. Zawitz, 1995.

525 Small Arms Survey, Graduate Institute of International Studies, 2008

526 Surveys show a “reported” ownership rate of 46%, but it is universally believed that these surveys under-reported (i.e., people that own firearms don’t want to admit so to a pollster). This is validated by surveys performed by the National Opinion Research Center. They perform their surveys face-to-face at the respondent’s home, and routinely have reported gun ownership rates 3-6% lower than telephone based surveys.


527 Ibid.

528 This is a serious omission as most gang crime is committed by and against young people.

529 “Fear in Britain,” Dr. Paul Gallant and Dr. Joanne Eisen, National Review, July 18, 2000.

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These deficiencies are so significant that even the British government does not believe the accuracy of the BCS.

[T]he BCS did not record ‘various categories of violent crime’, including murder and rape, retail crime, drug-taking, or offences in which the victims were aged below 16. The most reliable measure of crime is that which is reported to the police. We're facing over a million violent crimes a year for the first time in history.530

One curious tidbit: Murder rates initially appear to decline after 2002/2003. This is chiefly due to the scores of killings attributed to serial killer, Dr. Harold Frederick Shipman, which were booked in 2002/03 and did not recur in 2003/04.

More curious are the sudden leaps in reported violent crime when the British Home Office enforced standardized methods for recording reported crime (which led the Home Office to claim crime reports to be of poor quality, and thus rely on the suspect survey mechanism):

The 1998 changes to the Home Office Counting Rules had a very significant impact on violent crime; the numbers of such crimes recorded by the police increased by 83 per cent as a result of the 1998 changes … The National Crime Recording Standard (NCRS), introduced in April 2002, again resulted in increased recording of violent crimes particularly for less serious violent offences.531


Origin of the 2nd Amendment

Before the United States Constitution or Bill of Rights existed, most of the thirteen original states had clauses in their constitutions protecting the right to keep and bear arms. When the time came for Congress to draft the Bill of Rights, states submitted clauses from their constitutions that they thought should be added to the Federal Bill of Rights.

Three predominant arms clauses existed at that time (many states had word-for-word copies from other state constitutions and the redundant versions are not mentioned herein).

Pennsylvania (1776): That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the state; and as standing armies in the time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination, to, and governed by, the civil power. (Simplified in 1790 to read “The right of the citizens to bear arms in defence of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.”)

Vermont (1777): That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the State – and as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to and governed by the civil power.


530 “Row over figures as crime drops 5%,” David Davis, Shadow Home Secretary, The Guardian, July 22, 2004.

531 "Crime in England and Wales 2005/06," British Home Office, July 2006.

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Massachusetts (1780): The people have a right to keep and to bear arms for the common defence. And as, in time of peace, armies are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be maintained without the consent of the legislature; and the military power shall always be held in an exact subordination to the civil authority, and be governed by it.

North Carolina (1776): That the people have a right to bear arms, for the defence of the State; and, as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.

We can see in these state constitution clauses the conjoined purposes as viewed by the people at the time that the 2nd Amendment was drafted.


CALLS FOR THE RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS FROM STATE RATIFICATION CONVENTIONS

Five states that ratified the Constitution sent demands for a Bill of Rights to Congress. All of these demands included a right to keep and bear arms. The relevant parts of these written demands are:

New Hampshire: Twelfth[:] Congress shall never disarm any Citizen unless such as are or have been in Actual Rebellion.

Virginia: Seventeenth, That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated Militia composed of the body of the people trained to arms is the proper, natural and safe defence of a free State. That standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and therefore ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and protection of the Community will admit; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to and governed by the Civil power.

New York: That the People have a right to keep and bear Arms; that a well regulated Militia, including the body of the People capable of bearing Arms, is the proper, natural and safe defence of a free State; That the Militia should not be subject to Martial Law except in time of War, Rebellion or Insurrection. That Standing Armies in time of Peace are dangerous to Liberty, and ought not to be kept up, except in Cases of necessity; and that at all times, the Military should be under strict Subordination to the civil Power.

North Carolina: Almost identical to Virginia’s demand, but with, "the body of the people, trained to arms," instead of, "the body of the people trained to arms."

Rhode Island: Almost identical to Virginia’s demand, but with, "the body of the people capable of bearing arms," instead of, "the body of the people trained to arms," and with a, "militia shall not be subject to martial law," proviso as in New York’s.


2ND AMENDMENT DRAFTING, PROPOSALS, AND EDITING

James Madison had the duty of drafting the Bill of Rights from proposed amendments submitted by the states, and most coming from state constitutions. The Bill of Rights went through several revisions. The initial version of the 2nd Amendment read as follows:

The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country; but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.

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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #71 on: February 21, 2013, 02:17:42 PM »
The second drafting of the 2nd Amendment saw a rearrangement of the justification and rights clauses, but no change in the intents and purposes therein:

A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, being the best security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed, but no person religiously scrupulous shall be compelled to bear arms.

Notice that in the original draft, Madison used the phrase “free country” as the object of what is protected by the militia. In subsequent drafts, the word “state” was substituted. This is important because the concept of “state” and “country” are interchangeable, whereas “states” (plural) and “country” are not. Throughout the rest of the Constitution, when the states and their powers were defined, the plural was always used but in the 2nd Amendment it was not. Clearly, the intent of militia protection defined in the 2nd Amendment was to protect a form of government, not define the power of the several states.

Four further revisions removed objectionable concepts (such as the “conscientious objector” clause). On September 9, 1789, a member of the Senate proposed adding "for the common defense" onto the draft of the Second Amendment. In other words, the proposed wording of the amendment would have read:

A well regulated militia being the security of a free State, the right of the people to bear arms for the common defense, shall not be infringed.

The proposed change was voted down. This is instructive because some believe that the current wording of the amendment exists specifically for collective/common/mutual defense, and has no bearing on individual self defense. However, the Senate considered adding this restriction and rejected it.

It is clear from these origins and first drafts, and from contemporary commentaries on the clause, that the original intent was to secure an individual right. The commentaries of St. George Tucker (The American Blackstone) and Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story, both of whom were federal jurists and chronologically close to the authoring of the amendment, bear this out.


ARMS CLAUSES OF STATES THAT JOINED SHORTLY AFTER THE 2ND AMENDMENT WAS RATIFIED

Also worth review are arms clauses in the constitutions of states that joined the Union shortly after ratification of the Bill of Rights. These demonstrate the contemporary understanding of the amendment and the rights of the people:

Kentucky (1792): That the right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.

Tennessee (1796): That the freemen of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence.

Kentucky (1799): That the rights of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.

Ohio (1802): That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the State; and as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they shall not be kept up, and that the military shall be kept under strict subordination to the civil power.


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Indiana (1816): That the people have a right to bear arms for the defense of themselves and the State, and that the military shall be kept in strict subordination to the civil power.

Mississippi (1817): Every citizen has a right to bear arms, in defence of himself and the State.

Connecticut (1818): Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the state.

Maine (1819): Every citizen has a right to keep and bear arms for the common defence; and this right shall never be questioned.

Alabama (1819): That every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself and the state.

Missouri (1820): That the people have the right peaceably to assemble for their commongood, and to apply to those vested with the powers of government for redress of grievances by petition or remonstrance; and that their right to bear arms in defence of themselves and of the State cannot be questioned.


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THE END Please feel free to comment.
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Re: Gun Facts
« Reply #72 on: February 21, 2013, 09:24:01 PM »
was wondering when we'd get a chance.
Damned mad at most those statements especially Rosie O'Donals.
Something needs done, guess we will see if were like our forefathers or not?
"When my bow falls, so shall the world. When me heart ceases to pump blood to my body, it will all come crashing down. As a hunter, we are bound by duty, nay, bound by our very soul to this world. When a hunter dies we feel it, we sense it, and the world trembles with sorrow. When I die, so shall the world, from the shock of loosing such a great part of ones soul." Ezekiel, Okeanos Hunter

 


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